Pandering: A Sex Crime That Leads to Heavy Penalties in MN

There are many crimes you can be charged for, but pandering is one that is frowned upon in society. While it’s not prostitution, it’s part of the process and seen negatively.

In Minnesota, pandering is a sex crime. It means hiring or agreeing to hire someone for the purpose of prostitution. This crime can be a misdemeanor or a gross misdemeanor. Penalties increase further if the prostitute was younger than 18 years old. 

There is good news, though. A Minnesota sex crimes defense attorney can help you get the best outcome and lowest sentencing possible. The best thing to do if you’re accused of this crime is to protect your rights and reputation. Your attorney can help you build a strong case for your defense.

What Is Pandering in Minnesota?

Pandering is the act of procuring a person for prostitution. To be convicted of pandering, actual prostitution does not have to take place and the procurement doesn’t have to take place. The attempt to find someone to become a prostitute or to entice someone into the sex trade is enough to result in a conviction.

Pandering is also when a person encourages, facilitates or promotes prostitution. For instance, if you run a spa and know that certain members of the staff provide sexual services, you could be convicted of pandering.

It’s important to note that pandering targets prostitution intermediaries. Prostitutes can’t receive pandering charges in Minnesota, and neither can a person who solicits a prostitute’s services.

If law enforcement charges you with pandering in Minnesota, a conviction could mean community service. Worse, you may have to pay thousands of dollars in fines and spend up to 25 years in prison. This is why hiring the best sex crimes defense attorney is so critical.

What Kinds of Penalties Do You Face for Pandering in MN?

Depending on where it takes place and which state or states are involved, the penalties vary. For example, you might face time in prison for several years just for encouraging prostitution.

Pandering convictions in Minnesota incur fines, community service, and/or prison time. The exact sentence varies depending on whether the crime occurred in a public place and the age of the person procured. 

First Degree Penalties

In general, Minnesota charges pandering as a first degree sex crime if the person was under 18 years old. 

If the person was 18 years or older, the procurer must pay at least $500 in fines or perform court-ordered community service. A second offense committed within two years of the original crime is a gross misdemeanor. Violators can earn up to a $1500 fine and/or 20 hours of community service.

The penalties for pandering increase if the hiring or attempt to hire takes place in a public location. If the prostitute is 18 years or older, the minimum fine is $1500. Panderers also have to complete community service hours for committing the crime in a public place. 

If the public place is a park or a school zone, a court can add 3 years to the maximum prison sentence.

Second Degree Penalties

Second degree sex charges apply to pandering offenses committed against adults aged 18 years or older.

Pandering crimes committed against minors incur even heftier penalties, whether the crime takes place in a public place or not. If the prostitute is between 16 and 18 years of age, the panderer can get up to five years in prison, up to a $10,000 fine, or both. Pandering minors aged 13 to 16 years old can incur up to 10 years in prison and/or a $20,000 fine. 

Hiring or attempting to hire a minor under the age of 13 can get you slapped with 20 years in prison, up to a $40,000 fine, or both. You’ll also have to register as a sex offender in the state of Minnesota. Registering as a sex offender means you can only live in certain places, and your sex offender status will be publicly available to whoever wants to see it.

The penalty for pandering can increase to a maximum of 25 years in prison and/or up-to a $60,000 fine if:

  • It’s the second first degree sex charge within 10 years
  • The person hired suffered physical harm during the crime
  • The person hired was kept in debt bondage or forced labor conditions for more than 180 days

If you find yourself charged with one of these pandering offenses, there is good news. A Minnesota sex crime criminal defense attorney can reduce or even eliminate your charges.

Can You Defend Yourself Against Pandering Charges?

Yes. To charge you with pandering, a Minnesota court usually must prove that you directly received compensation for the prostitute’s services. However, it’s not pandering if your received compensation for a prostitute’s services but didn’t know that income was earned through prostitution.

For example, in the situation where the spa has sex workers, if the owner did not know that employees were taking it upon themselves to prostitute themselves, the owner would not be guilty of pandering. Not knowing that it is happening or being unaware that money is being made because of prostitution is a defense. To receive a pandering charge, the owner must have specifically hired the sex workers with the intent that they offer sex for money.

A court may use the fact that you accepted money from a prostitute as evidence of pandering. Minors and adults over the age of 55 are exempt from pandering charges in cases like these. Minnesota allows this defense to protect the children and elderly relatives of prostitutes who may rely on the prostitute’s income. 

You may also use several other defenses, like insanity, entrapment or involuntary intoxication, depending on your situation. Your attorney can help you decide the best option for your situation.

Which Pandering Defenses Can Minnesota Sex Crimes Defense Attorneys Not Use?

Before you hire an attorney, it’s important to know which defenses don’t work in pandering cases. 

It’s not a defense that the person hired or attempted to be hired didn’t end up engaging in the act of prostitution. This is so that courts can enforce charges against panderers who hire undercover police officers, and the officer doesn’t actually engage in the act of prostitution.

Even if these situations do apply to you, experienced Minnesota criminal defense lawyers know the tricks to lessen your charges.

Need a Sex Crime Criminal Defense Attorney in Minnesota?

Pandering is a sex crimes and a major criminal offense in Minnesota. If you’ve been charged with pandering, you need an experienced defense lawyer to argue your case. Call Carlson & Jones today for a free consultation with the best criminal defense attorney in Minnesota.


Originally published on February 19th, 2018 and updated on September 14, 2021

What Is a Sex Crime?

In Minnesota, the legal term for sex crimes is “criminal sexual conduct.” Rape and sexual assault are included in this.

Ask any Minnesota sex crime defense attorney, and they will tell you that the state classifies criminal sexual misconduct into five categories or degrees, based on the illegal sexual activity and the age of the victim. 

Each degree of criminal conduct also encompasses various behaviors, with the first-degree being the most serious and hence, carrying the most severe penalties. The fifth degree is the least severe, but comes with serious consequences nonetheless. 

Categories of Criminal Sexual Misconduct in Minnesota

Broadly speaking, first degree and third degree criminal sexual misconduct involves sexual penetration of the victim. Second, fourth, and fifth-degree crimes are those that involve sexual contact with the victim, but without penetration. 

As skilled sex crimes attorneys, we know that criminal sexual conduct offenses have other considerations as well. First and second degree crimes, for instance, usually include elements such as personal injury caused to the victim, the use of force, violence, dangerous weapons, or very young victims. 

In third, fourth, and fifth degrees, the crime involves less aggravated conduct. Other factors at play here include the lack of consent on the victim’s part, the victim’s relatively young age, and the victim consenting to the sexual conduct due to a vulnerability or a special relationship with the offender.

Let’s take a closer look at these categories/degrees to understand them better.

  • First Degree Criminal Sexual Conduct

This is considered the most severe charge of criminal sexual conduct in Minnesota. It involves sexual penetration of the victim, or sexual contact with a victim below 13 years of age. 

These charges also cover victims who were placed in reasonable fear of physical harm to them. If the defendant was armed with a dangerous weapon or threatened the victim with the weapon, or injured the victim, they can be charged with first degree criminal sexual conduct.  

Further, if the defendant used force or coercion for sexual penetration or did so while knowing that the victim is physically/mentally impaired, they can be held liable for a crime under this category. 

Other factors considered by the law are the defendant being aided by an accomplice to make the victim yield to, or if the accomplice was carrying a weapon, or if the defendant had a close relationship with the victim, and the victim was below the age of 16 at the time of sexual penetration. 

Penalties: If convicted, the criminal is sentenced to 30 years in prison and has to pay a fine of up to $40,000. The mandatory minimum sentence for these charges is at least 12 years.

  • Second Degree Criminal Sexual Conduct

This degree of criminal sexual conduct involves engaging in sexual contact without penetration. This is also considered a serious offense because of the high potential for using violence, threat of violence, force, coercion, or a dangerous weapon at the time of committing the act. These charges are also applicable if the victim was very young, and did not or was unable to consent to the act.  

Penalties: The minimum sentence in such cases is 7.5 years, while the maximum is 25 years. A fine of up to $35,000 may also have to be paid.

  • Third Degree Criminal Sexual Conduct

This charge entails engaging in sexual penetration of the victim and a few other circumstances similar to those in first degree criminal sexual conduct, such as the offender knowing that the victim is mentally or physically incapacitated. 

It also applies if the defendant had a close relationship with the victim, who was at least 16 years of age but below the age of 18 years at the time of the sexual penetration.  Other factors that play a role include nonconsensual sex taking place if the defendant and victim have a psychotherapist-patient relationship, or the offender was a masseuse or a clergy to the victim.

The charges are also applicable if the defendant used deception or false representation (suggesting a medical purpose) to accomplish sex, or if the defendant was professionally associated with a correction or juvenile facility where the victim was registered. 

Penalties: The maximum penalty awarded for these crimes is 15 years in prison and a fine of $30,000. 

  • Fourth Degree Criminal Sexual Conduct

This charge applies if the defendant engaged in sexual contact without penetration in the same situations as mentioned under third degree criminal sexual conduct. It also includes cases where the victim is 13-to-15 years of age and the defendant is four or more years older and in a position of authority. You may also get to hear the term “statutory rape” when this charge is levied. 

Penalties: The sentence awarded can include up to 10 years in prison or up to $20,000 in fines or both.

  • Fifth Degree Criminal Sexual Conduct

This is the least severe level of criminal sexual conduct in Minnesota. It applies in cases involving nonconsensual sexual contact or touching of the private parts of the victim. It also includes the removal or attempted removal of clothing covering the victim’s intimate body parts, and masturbation or lewd display of the genitals in the presence of someone below the age of 16.    

Penalties: These charges are regarded as gross misdemeanors and penalties include up to one year imprisonment in a local county jail and a fine of up to $3,000. If the defendant has had a prior conviction, the crime is regarded as felony. Penalties for a felony include up to seven years in prison and a fine up to $14,000.

Apart from the above, child pornography is considered a serious crime in Minnesota. Charges can range from simple possession of such content to producing or distributing it. These can result in extremely serious consequences.

Most of these offenses can get the defendant on the Minnesota sex offender registry, which can hamper every aspect of their life, both personally and professionally. 

Consulting a reliable sex crimes defense attorney can be helpful in clearing your name of such charges. Depending on the facts and details of your case, your lawyer can get the sentence reduced or the charges dismissed, if possible.   


Criminal sexual conduct charges are a serious matter and attract harsh punishments in Minnesota. A conviction for rape or sexual assault will certainly bring you a lengthy prison term. It will also get your name featured on the sex offender registry for life. 

If you’re been accused, you need to remember that you deserve a fair trial. Work with our experienced Minnesota sex crimes attorney, who can help you defend your case in the most effective way possible. 

Connect with Our Experienced Sex Crime Defense Attorney for Legal Advice

Contact us at the earliest with us at (855) 976-2444 or contact us online to improve your chances of getting a positive outcome for your case.

Seven Sex Crime Defenses that Buffalo, MN Felony Lawyers Use in Court

Juror sympathy is often an effective defense in criminal cases. If jurors sympathize with defendants, they often look for ways to acquit them. But appeals to sympathy almost always fall on deaf ears in sex crime cases. Furthermore, alternative approaches, like attacking the alleged victim, often backfire.

So, most attorneys rely on the presumption of innocence. This presumption is very difficult to overcome. To set things up, Buffalo, MN felony lawyers often ask jurors to consider a fictional headline, such as “Easter Bunny Accused of Child Abuse.” There is no way anyone would believe that, and until the state proves otherwise, the allegations against the defendant are similarly meritless.

To drive home the presumption of innocence in specific instances, there are a number of defenses available. At least one of them is almost sure to fit the facts of any given sex crimes case.

Untrue Allegations

Sex crimes allegations are almost never completely false. That’s especially true in most criminal sexual conduct matters. Sometimes, however, these allegations do not hold up under scrutiny. That’s especially true in child sexual abuse cases.

Sometimes, parents use such allegations to gain leverage in a family law proceeding. Many jurors raise an eyebrow if there is an ongoing divorce proceeding. They really raise an eyebrow if the defendant is involved in a child custody dispute and the other party to that dispute was involved in the complaint. Future family law disputes may have a similar effect. If the marriage is on shaky ground, some adults will use the criminal justice system to smear the other parent’s reputation.

Mistaken Identity

Identification issues are often present either during the alleged incident or during a subsequent lineup. In both situations, Buffalo, MN felony lawyers may successfully challenge the identification.

In many assault cases, alleged victims only get partial glimpses of suspects. Additionally, the area is usually dark. Finally, there is a good chance that the alleged victim was drinking.

Lineups are often biased. That’s especially true if the lineup was not double-blind. Neither the administering officer nor the witness should know the suspect’s identity. Otherwise, the lineup may be tainted. Perhaps officers place the suspect in the middle of the lineup or they linger just a moment when putting the suspect’s picture on the table.

Lineup instructions may matter too. If the administrator said the suspect “may or may not be” in this lineup, the results are usually reliable. But very few Wright County law enforcement officers use such language.

Consent and Buffalo, MN Felony Lawyers

Subdivision 4 of Section 609.341 is often an effective defense in criminal sexual conduct cases. Essentially, consent is “words or overt actions by a person indicating a freely given present agreement to perform a particular sexual act with the actor.”

This defense is hard to establish because there is usually no corroborating evidence either way. Circumstantially, the longer the alleged victim waited to report the incident, the more likely it is that the alleged victim consented. Generally, the defendant’s subjective, reasonable interpretation is enough. The alleged victim must be relatively clear, but the alleged victim need not have signed a waiver.

Lack of Intent

Buffalo, MN felony lawyers often use this defense in non-contact sex crimes, like exposure cases. Typically, defendants must either intend to sexually gratify themselves or be reckless (extremely indifferent) as to whether the alleged victim may be offended.

If there is no physical, biological evidence, sexual gratification is not easy to prove. A supposition is not enough. Wright County prosecutors must establish intent beyond any reasonable doubt. Recklessness is not easy to prove either. Being naked next to an uncovered window is not reckless, but being naked in a public park at noon is probably reckless.

Chain of Custody

The physical evidence in a criminal sexual conduct case moves a lot. At a minimum, it usually goes from a clinic to a police laboratory to an evidence room to the courtroom. The evidence may make many additional stops along the way.

A gap in the chain of custody does not invalidate the evidence as a matter of law. But it does create doubt as to the evidence’s authenticity. That doubt is all a Buffalo, MN felony lawyer needs to obtain an acquittal.

Failure to Mirandize

Police officers must read defendants their Miranda rights, such as “you have the right to remain silent,” prior to custodial interrogation. If officers ask any questions, no matter how innocent they seem, and the defendant does not feel free to leave, custodial interrogation has begun. If the suspect was not Mirandized, any statements or physical evidence officers obtained may be inadmissible at trial.

Unlawful Search

Generally, officers must have valid warrants before they enter dwellings, vehicles, or any other nonpublic places. An exception, such as an invitation to enter a building, often applies.

Evidence seizure is a different matter. Search warrants cannot simply give blanket permission to search a building. They must be specific as to the locations to be searched and the evidence to be seized. Common search warrant exceptions include consent searches, plain view seizures, and exigent circumstances (emergency safety) searches.

Team Up with Aggressive Attorneys

Sex crimes have numerous possible defenses. For a free consultation with an experienced Buffalo, MN felony lawyer, contact Carlson & Jones, P.A. Home and jail visits are available.

A Buffalo, MN Felony Lawyer Examines the Latest R. Kelly Case

In August 2019, Hennepin County officials charged singer Robert S. Kelly with two counts of soliciting a child prostitute in connection with a 2001 incident in Minneapolis.

According to court documents, the alleged victim was 17 when she asked R. Kelly for his autograph in July 2001. Kelly allegedly gave her the autograph and a telephone number. While she was inside Kelly’s Minneapolis hotel room, Kelly gave her $200 to dance naked. He fondled her as she danced, according to the complaint. After she saw a January 2019 Lifetime TV mini-series entitled Surviving R. Kelly, she called police. An investigator spoke with her brother, who said that his sister told him she danced for Kelly in his hotel room, but she provided no further details.

“It is despicable that Mr. Kelly used his fame in order to prey on underage girls,” declared Hennepin County Attorney Mike Freeman during a news conference announcing the charges.

Probable Cause in Sex Crime Cases

Even though probable cause is a very low standard, a hearing on this issue in the R. Kelly Minnesota prostitution case could go either way.

Courts have intentionally never defined “probable cause.” But a case from neighboring Iowa may shed some light on the subject. In 2015, officers pulled over a defendant for traveling 66mph in a 65mph zone. The officers knew that since 1mph is within a radar gun’s margin of error, the charges would not hold up in court. Nevertheless, the judge ruled that officers had probable cause.

In the R. Kelly case, officers relied heavily on the brother’s statement. He recalled that his sister danced for R. Kelly in his hotel room, and it’s reasonable to assume she did not dance the polka. Although the multiple leaps from seductive dancing to nude dancing to inappropriate touching is a bit tenuous, it may be enough for probable cause, given the aforementioned 66-in-a-65 case.

However, this case involved some grandstanding. Going into an election year, the Hennepin County Attorney staged an elaborate press conference to announce the charges. It is also reasonable to assume, given the lack of evidence, that authorities never would have followed up on the tip if the defendant had been Kelly Roberts instead of Robert Kelly. More on that tip below.

Establishing Guilt in Sex Crime Cases

The R. Kelly sex crime charges may be able to survive a probable cause hearing, but it’s extremely doubtful that prosecutors could establish guilt.

The brother’s corroboration is hearsay. So, it is admissible for probable cause purposes, but inadmissible for guilt-innocence purposes. As a result, prosecutors would only have a twenty-year-old statement from the alleged victim. Any physical evidence, such as security footage that shows the alleged victim going into the hotel room, is probably long gone by now.

Significantly, the alleged victim said nothing about the incident until she saw a one-sided “documentary” about the subject. That link is not enough to discount her story, but it is enough to raise an eyebrow.

When the alleged victim testifies in court, as she must do under the Confrontation Clause, she will probably testify with great precision as to what happened in the hotel room. But her memories of ancillary events, like the hotel room number or even the name of the hotel, might be rather fuzzy. That incongruity may be enough for at least a few jurors to doubt her version of events.

The prosecutor has the burden of proof to establish all elements of an underage prostitution case. That includes either sexual penetration, which clearly did not happen in this case, or sexual contact, which would be difficult to prove.

How Buffalo, MN Felony Lawyers Reduce Sex Offense Consequences

In many situations, the collateral consequences of a sex crime conviction are worse than the direct consequences. Court supervision periods and even prison time pass rather quickly, at least in most cases. But a registration requirement could last for a very long time and significantly affect everyday life.

In Minnesota, an End-of-Confinement Review Committee has considerable power. These five individuals — all of whom are connected to law enforcement in some way — assign a threat level to each offender. When making this assessment, the Committee must consider the following items:

  • Severity of the offense,
  • Criminal history,
  • Offender’s characteristics (mostly any history of substance abuse),
  • Support network,
  • Offender’s statements, or other evidence, which indicate reoffense is likely, and
  • Any mitigating physical conditions (e.g. the offender is very old or has a disability).

Low-risk Level I offenders must register, but only law enforcement has access to the data. For moderate-risk Level II offenders, law enforcement releases registration information to daycares and other such organizations which may be at risk. Everyone knows about high-risk Level III offenders. Additionally, when Level III offenders relocate, law enforcement holds community events to announce the relocation.

A Buffalo, MN felony lawyer can present evidence to the committee, such as psychological evaluations and witness statements, to convince the committee to assign a lower risk level. At a later time, an attorney may be able to reduce the level one notch or even erase the defendant’s name from the database altogether.

Contact a Tenacious Attorney

Delayed report sex crimes cases are difficult to prove in court. For a free consultation with an experienced Buffalo, MN felony lawyer, contact Carlson & Jones, P.A. Convenient payment plans are available.

Buffalo Criminal Lawyers and Sex Crimes Defenses

Minnesota law includes a wide array of sexual offenses. Many of them require some sort of physical contact. But in other cases, the defendant and alleged victim do not have to be in the same room or even on the same continent. Since there are so many types of sex crimes, a Buffalo sex crimes attorney has many options in terms of affirmative defenses.

In affirmative defenses like the ones dicussed below, the defendant has the burden of proof. THat’s different from the elements of the offense. On those points, the prosecutor must establish guilt beyond a reasonable doubt.

Perhaps most importantly, sex crimes prosecutrions have lots of movign parts. These cases often involve complex search warrants, questionable eyewitness testimony, and other such issues.

Can a Buffalo Criminal Lawyer Prove Entrapment in a Sex Crimes Case?

Even between adults and minors, sexting is generally not illegal in Minnesota. Exchanging suggestive or explicit internet messages with a minor could have a number of serious consequences. But a criminal conviction is not one of them.

However, if the text, email, chat room, or other conversation goes to the next level. criminal liability may be an issue. It is not only illegal under Minnesota and federal law to possess child pornography. It is also illegal to solicit such material.

Many times, police detectives pose as underage girls and enter online chat rooms. Such a conversation could result in criminal charges. A reasonable belief about the other person’s age and identity can either be a defense or a basis for prosecution. But even if “the girl” entices a defendant (e.g. do you want me to send you a dirty picture), the entrapment defense may not apply.

Legally, for the entrapment defense to hold up in court, the defendant must have no predisposition to commit the charged offense.

The online environment often comes into play here. If the conversation occurred in a sex chat room, a Buffalo criminal lawyer would be hard-pressed to show that the defendant had no presdisposition. However, the outcome may be different in another online forum, such as Facebook messaging.

Is Consent a Defense?

Consent is never a defense in online exchange prosecutions. As a matter of law, minors cannot consent to sexual activity. The same thing applies to mentally impaired individuals, incapacitated (e.g. substance-impaired) individuals, and certain other people.

Additionally, consent is very hard for Buffalo criminal lawyers to establish in certain cases, such as doctor-patient or clergy-parishioner. Doctors, priests, and other such professionals have so much moral authority that people like patients and parishioners are not an even footing with them in terms of sexual consent.

However, consent may be a defense to most other kinds of sexual battery cases. This sinister-sounding term really means any unwanted sexual contact of any degree. Section 609.341 defines consent as “words or overt actions by a person indicating a freely given present agreement to perform a particular sexual act with the actor.” Furthermore, consent “does not mean the existence of a prior or current social relationship between the actor and the complainant or that the complainant failed to resist a particular sexual act.”

That’s a very limited definition. Only an absolute and unqualified “Yes” is consent. “Maybe later,” “Let’s get to know each other first,” and any other equivocal language is not consent. Furthermore, assent is not the same thing as consent. Finally, a person can withdraw consent at any time.

What Are Some Investigatory Problems in Sex Crimes Cases?

In both remote and personal sex crimes prosecutions, and in all other types of criminal cases, police officer and prosecutor mistakes have significant consequences.

Lack of evidence is sometimes an issue. In remote cases, if the defendant used something like a Virtual Private Network, it’s difficult to tie a specific device with a specific exchange of messages. In sexual battery cases, the alleged victim may have only seen the defendant for a moment in bad lighting.

Prosecutors are not perfect in these cases either. Many times, government lawyers are prone to accept false allegations at face value. Statistically, while they may be fatally mistaken about the details, very few alleged victims invent allegations out of thin air. However, these situations do occur. So, it’s always important for Buffalo criminal lawyers to have independent professionals interview alleged victims. These professionals know how to detect false testimony. For example, if there is a parallel proceeding in family court, there’s a good chance that the abuse or other allegation is either fabricated or inflated.

Connect with Aggressive Attorneys

Serious sex crimes allegations demand a vigorous defense. For a free consultation with an experienced Buffalo criminal lawyer, contact Carlson & Jones, P.A. We routinely handle matters in Wright County and nearby jurisdictions.


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